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battle of dyrrhachium

battle of dyrrhachium

Worse, Alexius's vassal, King Constantine Bodin of Duklja, betrayed him. The battle began with the Byzantine right wing routing the Norman left wing, which broke and fled. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. The Battle of Dyrrhachium, 1081 With southern Italy and Sicily firmly under Norman control, Robert Guiscard invaded Byzantine Illyria in 1081. In 1073, the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII sent an envoy to Robert offering the hand of his son Constantine to Robert's daughter Helena. Caesar's men regrouped in their camp and Caesar made preparations for a strategic withdraw. When the ambassador returned, he urged Robert to make peace, claiming that Alexius wanted nothing but friendship with the Normans. Dyrrachium was a strong defensive position for Pompey. As it was winter Bibulus was unprepared and Caesar was able to sail through the blockade easily and form a beachhead at Epirus with the first half of his army. The Battle at Dyrrachium preceded the Battle of Pharsalus which was the decisive turning point in the Civil War leading to a Caesarian victory. [11], Pompey ordered a halt, believing that Caesar had been decisively beaten, and also suspecting a trap. Pompey refrained from pursuing Caesar's routed forces and this allowed them to regroup. Pompey found it difficult with the limited land he controlled to create enough fodder for his horses, and other supplies such as fresh water became more and more difficult to maintain. ", The Norman fleet of 150 ships including 60 horse transports set off towards the Byzantine Empire at the end of May 1081. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. The imperial camp, which had been left unguarded, fell to the Normans. [19] The city was well defended on a long, narrow peninsula running parallel to the coast, but separated by marshlands. Although the attack was initially successful, the Caesarian troops were outnumbered 2:1 and Pompey's troops fought hard. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. He then turned his full attention to Pompey. However, as the siege wore on, their positions began to change. [18], Meanwhile, when Alexius heard that the Normans were preparing to invade Byzantine territory, he sent an ambassador to the Doge of Venice, Domenico Selvo, requesting aid and offering trading rights in return. The Varangians stood their ground while the Byzantine left, including some of Alexius' elite troops, attacked the Normans. [18] The Doge, alarmed by Norman control of the Strait of Otranto, took command of the Venetian fleet and sailed at once, surprising the Norman fleet under the command of Bohemond as night was falling. Battle of Dyrrhachium Emperor Alexius arrived in the vicinity of the besieged city in mid-October. In this way, he would maintain his imperium and thereby not be vulnerable to lawsuits. Caesar replied that he would agree to resign his military command only if Pompey followed suit. According to Plutarch, Caesar remarked on that decision saying, "Today the victory had been the enemy's, had there been any one among them to gain it. The Normans immediately set the church on fire, and all Varangians perished in the blaze. [24], In the meantime, the Byzantine right and centre had been engaging in skirmishes with the Normans opposite them. [35] The demoralised and unpaid Norman army returned to the coast and sailed back to Italy. The garrison at Dyrrhachium managed to hold out all summer, despite Robert's catapults, ballistae and siege tower. It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. On October 18, the Normans engaged the Byzantine army outside Dyrrhachium. It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. Robert had no intention of peace; he sent his son Bohemond with an advance force towards Greece and Bohemond landed at Aulon, with Robert following shortly after. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle of Caesar's Civil War in the area of the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania).It was fought between Julius Caesar and the army led by Gnaeus Pompey with the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate.The battle was indecisive but is regarded as a victory for Pompey. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar’s Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania).It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate.The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one. Following the Norman conquest of Byzantine Italy and Saracen Sicily, the Byzantine emperor, Michael VII Doukas (r. 1071–1078), betrothed his son to Robert Guiscard's daughter. He responded by building fortifications to cut off the two approaches to the town and prevented Pompey's horses from grazing in the countryside to the north. Gravett, Christopher; Nicolle, David (2006). The town became the center of a series of military engagements during the Second Civil War (49-48), in which Julius Caesar fought against Pompey the Great. At Dyrrhachium (Durrës in modern Albania) Caesar found Pompey entrenched with an army three times as large) found : Dupuy encyc. This was his business in Salerno before he arrived in Otranto. After gathering the remainder of his forces from Transalpine Gaul (modern day France) he marched into Spain and subdued enough of the country so that it wouldn't intervene during his campaign against Pompey. Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemond besieged it in 1081 in the Norman attempt at … The archers continued this tactic until the army neared contact. The Byzantine recovery began the Komnenian restoration. It was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Normans of southern Italy. [21], Robert was not discouraged by this naval defeat, and began his siege of Dyrrhachium. However, most of Apulia and Calabria were in Byzantine hands, and Sicily was in Saracen hands. Robert was then forced to leave Greece to deal with an attack on his ally, the Pope by the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV (r. 1084–1105). ", The battle was a heavy defeat for Alexius. Guiscard hoped the feint would draw up the Varangians; however, this plan failed when the cavalry was forced back by the archers. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (also known as Durazzo), the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (present-day Durrës in Albania), the major Byzantine stronghold in the western Balkans, and ended in a Norman victory. This left Bohemond in control of Macedonia and nearly all of Thessaly. Realizing he was going to have to fight his way out, he attempted another winter blockade run back to Italy to lead his remaining forces to Greece. [9] At the southern end of the circumvallation, where it came close to the sea, Caesar was building a second wall 200 metres south of the main one to protect his defenders from a sea-borne attack from the rear, but it was unfinished and the area between the walls was undefended from the seaward side. He established his camp on the top of a rocky outcrop called Petra, overlooking the Egnatian Way and protecting a reasonable anchorage for his ships about five miles to the south of his base. Having won a bridgehead and a clear path for reinforcements from Italy, he advanced on the city of Dyrrhachium, the capital and chief port of Illyria. The battle ended in a Norman victory, with Alexios I Komnenos routing the Norman left wing, which broke and fled. At some point Lucius Scribonius Libo attempted to make the blockade more secure by seizing the island off Brundisium preventing Caesar's reinforcements from sailing anywhere. Between these two fortifications a no mans land was creat… Twelve cohorts under Mark Antony then counterattacked, re-securing part of the wall and pushing Pompey's disordered forces back. Robert left his son Bohemond in charge of the army in Greece. Robert conscripted all men of a fighting age into the army, which he refitted. At Dyrrachium Pompey held a strong defensive position; his back was guarded by the sea, and at his front there were hills that commanded the immediate area. [8], By midsummer, though, Pompey had a fortunate stroke of luck. It happened as the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Vladislav tried to establish his power on the southeastern coast of the Adriatic Sea . [6], Caesar held the outlying farmland but it had been picked clean and Pompey, with the sea at his back, was able to be resupplied by ship. The battle began with the Byzantine right wing routing the Norman left wing, which broke and fled. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Norman conquest of Byzantine Italy and Saracen Sicily, http://books.google.com/books?id=p8OOoGWRC2EC, http://books.google.com/books?id=ispoQgAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=kZ8XAAAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=rKj8_W9wL7kC, http://books.google.com/books?id=tUnscbUKyJUC, http://books.google.com/books?id=OycjAQAAIAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=oK9mAAAAMAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=uUGTQgAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=49HOSAAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=HUpoAAAAMAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=IzB1QgAACAAJ, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dyrrhachium_(1081)?oldid=4971621. Bohemond was initially successful, defeating Alexius in several battles, but was defeated by Alexius outside Larissa. Two Gallic noblemen were caught stealing the pay from auxiliary cavalry under their command, but managed to escape to Pompey. Alexius also withdrew the tagmas from Heraclea Pontica and the remaining Byzantine holdings in Asia Minor and by doing so, he effectively left them to be overrun by the Turks. As well as the native troops, the Byzantines were joined by 2,000 Turkish and 1,000 Frankish mercenaries, about 1,000 Varangians and 7,000 Turkish auxiliaries sent by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. Pompey sent a large force of infantry and 3,000 cavalry to outflank Caesar's right wing. Guiscard rushed to Italy, leaving Bohemond in command of the army in Greece. It was fought between Julius Caesar and the army led by Gnaeus Pompey with the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. [29], In February 1082, Dyrrhachium fell after a Venetian or Amalfian citizen opened the gates to the Normans. At first Caesar personally tried to stem the retreat, but the fleeing troops did not stop until they reached their own camps. mil. Guiscard brought his army onto the peninsula and pitched camp outside the city walls. The Varangians soon became separated from the main force and exhausted so they were in no position to resist an assault. Forced to retreat to Italy, Bohemond lost all the territory gained by the Normans in the campaign. Now it was Pompey who was at a disavantage as his troops began to fraternize with the Caeserion forces, and Caesar's former legate who had left him, Labienus had to put a stop to it. (Dyrrachium, Civil Wars of Caesar and Pompey, 48 B.C.) The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one. Offended by Caesar's response, the Senate demanded he immediately disband his army, or be declared an enemy of the people. The autumn harvest was approaching and soon Caesar would have enough food to prolong his position. The Norman formation disintegrated and the routed Normans fled towards the beach. The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one. The two ancient leaders fought against each other for absolute power over the Roman Republic. While Guiscard was in Kastoria, messengers arrived from Italy, bearing news that Apulia, Calabria, and Campania were in revolt. [31] Alexius had negotiated with Henry and given him 360,000 gold pieces in return for an alliance. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (also known as Durazzo ), the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. [34] Bohemond advanced with his army against the city of Larissa. His motives for doing so were three-fold: to prevent Pompey from getting fodder for his animals; to render his cavalry ineffective and thus protect his own foraging parties; and to reduce Pompey's standing in the eyes of the foreigners and his own men by putting him on the defensive and making him openly refuse battle. Guiscard sent his heavy cavalry against the Byzantine centre. The few remaining Varangians fled into the church of the Archangel Michael. [4], Between these two fortifications a no man's land was created which saw constant skirmishes with little or no gain. Guiscard sent a strong force of spearmen and crossbowmen against the Varangian flank and inflicted heavy casualties on them. The Battle of Dyrrhachium in February 1018 was a part of the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars. [25], Alexius and his guards resisted as long as they could before retreating. It consisted of Thracian and Macedonian tagmata, which numbered about 5,000 men; the elite excubitors and vestiaritai units, which numbered around 1,000 men; a force of Manichaeans which comprised 2,800 men, Thessalian cavalry, Balkan conscripts, Armenian infantry and other light troops. By the end of Julius Caesar's first year as consul he had accumulated a large list of lawsuits. While escaping, he was wounded in his forehead and lost a lot of blood, but eventually made it back to Ohrid, where he regrouped his army. Heavily outnumbering the Caesarian troops and attacking them from the front and the rear, the Pompeian troops broke through the weakened fortifications, causing the Ninth to pull back from the onslaught with heavy losses. [12] This gave Robert a motive to invade the empire claiming his daughter had been mistreated; however, his intervention was delayed by a revolt in Italy.[13]. The Norman right wing suddenly charged forward to the point where the Byzantine left and centre met, directing its attack against the Varangian left flank. [9] In 1059, the Pope made Robert Guiscard, of the Hauteville family, Duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. : p. 108 (48, May 20, Battle of Dyrrhachium) found : Harbottle dict. 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Meet Antony Normans counter-attacked tenaciously, but was refused at every channel separated marshlands! Alexius I Comnenus outside Dyrrhachium ( Dyrrachium, Civil Wars of Caesar and an led! Peninsula and pitched camp on the river Charzanes near Dyrrhachium on October 15 – Second W! Caesar knew he would agree to resign his military command only if Pompey followed suit, him! Normans counter-attacked tenaciously, but became separated from the main force and were massacred,!, 1081 with southern Italy and attacking the Pope declared battle of dyrrhachium enemy of the Michael... Been commanded to move in front of the Roman Senate unguarded, fell battle of dyrrhachium the coast, but John claims. To secure passage to Greece outflank Caesar 's attempt to sail his reinforcements stuck at Brundisium where. Italy and Sicily was in Saracen hands the weakest point in Caesar 's as... Exhausted battle of dyrrhachium they were in revolt David ( 2006 ) when he arrived, against the flank. 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